Skip to content

Park’s Model made SIMPLE

    So you want to learn Park’s model? Then you have come to the right place! In this article I teach you all about this model, commonly used in the context of human geography, why it is important and how it is used. Are you ready to learn all about the Park’s model? Then read on…

    What is Park’s Model?

    Park’s model is a way to understand how natural events, like floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes, can cause harm to people and things around us. It was developed by a geographer named C. C. Park in the 1940s and helps us see how different factors work together to create a hazardous situation.

    According to Park’s model, there are three things that are important to consider when thinking about natural hazards:

    • the natural event itself
    • where people and things are located
    • how easily they can be harmed or damaged by the event.

    By understanding how these three factors interact, we can better prepare for and prevent harm from natural disasters.

    Park's model

    What is the disaster response curve?

    Park’s model is also known as the disaster response curve. This is a conceptual model that helps us understand the different phases of disaster management. The curve is typically divided into four or five phases, which are preparation, response, recovery, and mitigation (and sometimes prevention). Lets take a look at what each of these phases mean…

    Preparation

    Preparation involves activities that take place before a disaster occurs, such as risk assessment, planning, and training. This phase is important because it helps to minimize the potential impact of a disaster.

    Response

    Response is the phase that occurs during and immediately after a disaster. During this phase, emergency responders, volunteers, and others work to rescue and assist those affected by the disaster. The response phase can be further divided into three sub-phases: immediate response, emergency relief, and restoration.

    Recovery

    Recovery is the phase that occurs after the initial response to the disaster. During this phase, efforts are made to restore the affected area to its pre-disaster state. This can involve repairing infrastructure, providing medical and psychological assistance, and helping people to rebuild their homes and businesses.

    Mitigation

    Mitigation involves activities aimed at reducing the impact of future disasters. This can include actions such as improving building codes, creating early warning systems, and educating people about how to prepare for and respond to disasters.

    Prevention

    The prevention phase is sometimes added as an additional phase to the disaster response curve, and it refers to actions taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a disaster occurring in the first place.

    Prevention measures might include things like hazard mitigation planning, building codes and standards, public education campaigns, and land use regulations. By taking steps to prevent disasters, we can reduce the need for emergency response efforts and minimize the potential impact of a disaster.

    The disaster response curve helps to illustrate the cyclical nature of disaster management, and emphasizes the importance of being prepared and taking action before a disaster occurs. By understanding the different phases of the curve, we can better prepare for and respond to disasters, and minimize their impact on people and communities.

    Interpreting the disaster response curve

    The disaster response curve is a graph that shows the four stages of a disaster response: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation. The x-axis (horizontal) represents time, and the y-axis (vertical) represents the level of activity or impact.

    The graph starts with a baseline level of activity or impact, which represents normal conditions before a disaster. When a disaster occurs, there is typically an initial spike in activity or impact, which represents the response stage. This could be a sudden increase in the number of emergency calls, or a sudden decrease in the availability of essential services.

    After the initial response, there is usually a gradual decline in activity or impact as the recovery stage begins. This could be a gradual increase in the availability of essential services, or a gradual decrease in the number of emergency calls.

    Finally, the graph shows a line representing the mitigation stage, which is a gradual decrease in the risk of future disasters. This could be a gradual increase in the resiliency of infrastructure, or a gradual decrease in the likelihood of a similar disaster occurring again.

    When reading the graph, you can use the x-axis to track the progression of time, and the y-axis to track the level of activity or impact at each stage. You can also look for trends or patterns in the graph, such as whether the response was effective in reducing the impact of the disaster, or whether there were any unexpected challenges during the recovery stage.

    The Hazard Management Cycle

    Benefits of Park’s model

    The parks model can be really useful in a range of contexts. Here are some examples:

    It helps to assess and mitigate risk

    The Park’s Model can help organizations and communities to assess their risk to natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes. By identifying the potential hazards and their likelihood of occurrence, they can then take steps to mitigate or reduce the risks.

    It provides a framework for disaster preparedness

    The Park’s Model provides a clear framework for disaster preparedness, which involves developing plans and procedures to respond to and recover from disasters. This can include things like evacuation plans, communication plans, and emergency supplies.

    It promotes collaboration and coordination

    The Park’s Model emphasizes the importance of collaboration and coordination between different agencies and organizations in responding to disasters. By working together, they can share resources and expertise, and ensure that response efforts are well-coordinated.

    It encourages continuous improvement

    The Park’s Model is designed to be a continuous process of improvement, where organizations continually assess and improve their disaster preparedness and response efforts over time. This can help them to learn from past experiences and be better prepared for future disasters.

    It helps to reduce the impact of disasters

    By using the Park’s Model, organizations and communities can take steps to reduce the impact of disasters on people, property, and the environment. This can include things like building stronger infrastructure, improving early warning systems, and providing emergency services and support to affected populations.

    Disadvantages of Park’s model

    While there are many benefits to using the Park’s Model in the context of hazards and disasters, there are also some potential disadvantages to consider:

    It can be resource-intensive

    Implementing the Park’s Model can require significant resources in terms of time, money, and personnel. This may be a challenge for organisations or communities that have limited resources.

    It may not be adaptable to all contexts

    The Park’s Model was developed in the context of service quality, and while it can be adapted to the context of hazards and disasters, it may not be a perfect fit for all situations.

    It may be difficult to measure success

    It can be challenging to measure the success of the Park’s Model in the context of hazards and disasters, as success may be defined differently by different stakeholders.

    It may be overly focused on process

    The Park’s Model places a strong emphasis on process improvement, which may result in a focus on meeting targets and metrics rather than on achieving meaningful outcomes.

    It may not address underlying issues

    The Park’s Model may focus primarily on improving disaster preparedness and response efforts, without addressing underlying issues that contribute to the risk of disasters, such as climate change or poverty.

    Key takeaways about Park’s model

    Now that I have explained Park’s model, lets re-cap some of the key points.

    1. Park’s model of hazards is a framework that identifies the various stages of a hazard and the factors that influence its progression.
    2. The model consists of four stages: pre-event, event, post-event, and recovery.
    3. In the pre-event stage, the focus is on hazard identification, assessment, and mitigation. This stage involves identifying potential hazards, assessing their likelihood and potential impact, and implementing measures to reduce the risks.
    4. The event stage is the actual occurrence of the hazard. This stage includes the immediate response to the hazard, such as search and rescue efforts, evacuation, and medical treatment.
    5. In the post-event stage, attention turns to recovery and rehabilitation. This stage involves restoring normalcy to the affected area, rebuilding infrastructure, and providing support to those affected by the disaster.
    6. The factors that influence the progression of a hazard through these stages include physical, environmental, social, economic, and political factors.
    7. The Park’s model of hazards emphasizes the importance of preparedness, early warning systems, and effective response strategies in reducing the impact of hazards on individuals and communities.

    Park’s model FAQs

    Now lets finish off this article about Park’s model by answering some frequently asked questions:

    What is Park’s model of communication?

    Park’s model of communication is a linear model that consists of five elements: a source, a message, a channel, a receiver, and feedback.

    What are the stages of Park’s model of hazards?

    The stages of Park’s model of hazards are pre-event, event, post-event, and recovery.

    What is the purpose of Park’s model of hazards?

    The purpose of Park’s model of hazards is to identify the various stages of a hazard and the factors that influence its progression.

    What factors influence the progression of a hazard through the stages of Park’s model of hazards?

    The factors that influence the progression of a hazard through the stages of Park’s model of hazards include physical, environmental, social, economic, and political factors.

    What is the importance of early warning systems in Park’s model of hazards?

    Early warning systems are important in Park’s model of hazards because they can help to reduce the impact of hazards on individuals and communities by providing advance notice of potential dangers.

    What is the role of feedback in Park’s model of communication?

    Feedback is the response or reaction of the receiver to the message sent by the source in Park’s model of communication. It allows for the source to adjust their message and improve communication effectiveness.

    Park’s model: To conclude

    As you can see, Parks model is a very useful model in managing disaster response and is used around the world. If you found this article helpful, I am sure that you will also like these articles too: