If you are wondering what a volcanic arc is then you have come to the right place! In this article I will teach you all about volcanic arcs and why they exist. Ready to learn more? Read on…
What is a volcanic arc?
A volcanic arc is like a line of volcanoes that form in a specific area.
It happens when one big piece of Earth’s crust slides beneath another.
The volcanoes in a volcanic arc can be really tall and explosive because of the intense heat and pressure created when the plates collide.
It’s a place where lots of volcanic activity happens, and it can also have a lot of earthquakes.
Process of plate tectonics
Plate tectonics is the process that describes how Earth’s outer layer, called the lithosphere, is made up of several large pieces called tectonic plates. These plates are constantly moving, albeit very slowly, floating on the semi-fluid layer beneath called the asthenosphere.
When two tectonic plates meet, different things can happen depending on the type of boundary between them. In the case of a subduction zone, where one plate is forced beneath another, the process begins. The denser plate (usually an oceanic plate) sinks into the hotter and more plastic mantle beneath the less dense plate (usually a continental plate).
As the subducting plate sinks deeper into the Earth, it experiences increasing temperature and pressure. This causes the subducting plate to release water and other volatile substances trapped within it. These released volatiles rise into the overlying mantle wedge, causing it to partially melt.
The melted material from the mantle wedge, called magma, is less dense than the surrounding rocks, so it rises towards the surface. Eventually, it reaches the Earth’s crust, forming a series of volcanoes along the subduction zone. This line of volcanoes is known as a volcanic arc.
The volcanic arc consists of explosive volcanoes because the magma contains a lot of gas and other materials that build up pressure. This leads to eruptions that can be quite powerful. Additionally, the intense heat and pressure in the subduction zone can cause the crust to deform and create earthquakes.
So, in simple terms, plate tectonics is when Earth’s outer layer moves around, and when certain plates collide, one goes under the other. This creates a place where one plate sinks into the Earth and makes volcanoes. The volcanoes form a line called a volcanic arc, and they can erupt explosively and cause earthquakes.
Three main sections of a volcanic arc
In a volcanic arc, there are three main sections: the forearc, volcanic front, and back-arc.
The forearc is the region located between the trench (where the subduction occurs) and the volcanic front. It is typically a broad area and is often characterized by sediment deposition from the eroding land above. The forearc is not as active volcanically as the other sections but can experience shallow earthquakes due to the interaction of the subducting and overriding plates.
The volcanic front is the central part of the volcanic arc where most of the active volcanoes are found. It is the area where the subducted plate melts and creates magma that rises to the surface, leading to volcanic eruptions. The volcanic front is known for its tall and explosive volcanoes, such as stratovolcanoes, which are formed by layers of lava and ash building up over time.
The back-arc is the region located on the side opposite to the trench, behind the volcanic front. It is characterised by a different tectonic setting compared to the volcanic front. In the back-arc, the overriding plate may experience extension or stretching, which can lead to the formation of features like basins, rifts, or even smaller volcanoes. The volcanism in the back-arc is often less intense compared to the volcanic front.
Examples of volcanic arcs around the world
Now that we know what a volcanic arc is, lets take a look at some examples from around the world.
The Andean Volcanic Arc
The Andean Volcanic Arc is a prominent volcanic arc in South America, stretching over 7,000 kilometres along the western coast.
It is formed by the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. This volcanic arc is known for its numerous active stratovolcanoes, such as Cotopaxi in Ecuador and Villarrica in Chile.
The Cascade Volcanic Arc
The Cascade Volcanic Arc is located in the western part of North America, extending from northern California through Oregon and Washington up to British Columbia in Canada.
It is formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate beneath the North American Plate.
The Cascade Volcanic Arc is famous for its explosive and iconic volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier.
The Japanese Volcanic Arc
The Japanese Volcanic Arc is a volcanic arc that runs through the islands of Japan. It is created by the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate.
This volcanic arc is characterised by a high density of volcanoes, including iconic peaks like Mount Fuji and Mount Aso.
The Japanese Volcanic Arc is known for its frequent volcanic activity and seismic events.
The Central American Volcanic Arc
It is formed by the subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate. This volcanic arc is marked by a string of active volcanoes, such as Arenal in Costa Rica and Masaya in Nicaragua.
The Central American Volcanic Arc is associated with both explosive eruptions and volcanic hazards.
The Aleutian Volcanic Arc
The Aleutian Volcanic Arc stretches across the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, extending into the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.
It is formed by the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. The Aleutian Volcanic Arc is known for its volcanic activity and hosts numerous volcanic peaks, including Mount Shishaldin and Mount Pavlof.
It is characterised by its remote location and rugged volcanic landscapes.
These examples demonstrate the diverse and geologically active nature of volcanic arcs around the world, each shaped by the specific tectonic processes occurring in their respective regions.
Creating rich soils
Volcanic arcs play a crucial role in creating rich soils that contribute to high levels of biodiversity. When volcanoes erupt in volcanic arcs, they release lava and ash that contain various minerals and nutrients. Over time, these volcanic materials break down and weather, forming fertile soils.
The rich soils formed from volcanic activity are highly fertile and contain essential elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace minerals. These nutrients provide a favorable environment for plant growth and support a diverse range of vegetation.
The lush vegetation, in turn, attracts a wide array of animal species. The abundant plant life provides food and shelter for insects, birds, mammals, and other organisms, fostering a complex web of interactions and relationships. The high levels of biodiversity in volcanic arc regions can include unique plant species, endemic wildlife, and specialized adaptations to volcanic environments.
Additionally, the volcanic soils have excellent water retention properties, allowing plants to thrive even during dry periods. The moisture-retaining capacity of these soils helps sustain vegetation, creating microhabitats and promoting further biodiversity.
The presence of diverse plant communities and abundant food sources in volcanic arc areas supports a cascade of life. Herbivores feed on plants, which, in turn, attract predators and scavengers. The interdependence of species within these ecosystems contributes to the overall richness and diversity of life.
In summary, volcanic arcs provide the foundation for fertile soils rich in nutrients, fostering the growth of diverse plant communities. This abundance of plant life supports a wide range of animal species, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. The interconnectedness and complexity of these ecosystems contribute to the unique and vibrant natural environments found in volcanic arc regions.
Hazards and risks
Hazards and risks are important concepts to understand when it comes to potential dangers and uncertainties in our environment.
Hazards refer to natural or man-made events or conditions that have the potential to cause harm, damage, or disruption to people, property, or the environment. These hazards can take various forms, such as natural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, volcanic eruptions, or human-made hazards like industrial accidents or chemical spills.
Risks, on the other hand, are the chances or probabilities of experiencing negative consequences or harm due to exposure to a hazard. It involves assessing the likelihood and potential severity of an event occurring and the potential impacts it may have.
For example, if we consider a volcanic eruption as a hazard, the associated risks would involve evaluating factors such as the volcano’s history, monitoring data, and the proximity of populated areas to determine the likelihood and potential impacts of an eruption. The risks associated with the volcanic hazard would include the potential for ashfall, pyroclastic flows, lahars (mudflows), lava flows, and other volcanic phenomena.
Understanding hazards and risks is essential for risk management and mitigation. It involves identifying potential hazards, assessing the risks they pose, and implementing measures to reduce or avoid those risks. This can include measures such as building codes and regulations, early warning systems, emergency preparedness, evacuation plans, and public education.
By recognising hazards and evaluating risks, we can take steps to minimise their potential impacts and increase our resilience to such events. This helps to protect lives, safeguard communities, and promote sustainable development in the face of potential dangers.
Now that we understand what a volcanic arc is, lets summarise the key points that we should know:
- Volcanic arcs are curving chains of volcanoes that form above subduction zones, where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another.
- They are characterized by intense volcanic activity and the formation of stratovolcanoes, which are steep-sided cones composed of alternating layers of lava, ash, and volcanic debris.
- Volcanic arcs often occur in areas of intense seismic activity and are associated with the collision or subduction of tectonic plates.
- The three main sections of a volcanic arc are the forearc, volcanic front, and back-arc. The forearc is located between the trench and volcanic front, the volcanic front is where most active volcanoes are found, and the back-arc is behind the volcanic front.
- Volcanic arcs play a crucial role in creating fertile soils due to the volcanic materials released during eruptions. These rich soils support diverse plant communities and contribute to high levels of biodiversity.
- The abundant vegetation in volcanic arc regions attracts a wide range of animal species, leading to complex ecosystems and interactions.
- Volcanic arcs can pose hazards, including explosive volcanic eruptions, ashfall, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and seismic activity. Assessing and managing these risks is essential for safeguarding lives and minimizing the potential impacts.
- Understanding volcanic arcs provides insights into the dynamic nature of Earth’s tectonic processes, the formation of landscapes, and the coexistence of natural hazards and biodiversity.
Lastly, here are 10 frequently asked questions about volcanic arcs along with their answers:
What is a volcanic arc?
A volcanic arc is a curving chain of volcanoes that forms above a subduction zone, where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another.
How are volcanic arcs formed?
Volcanic arcs form due to the subduction of one tectonic plate beneath another, which leads to the melting of the subducting plate and the subsequent volcanic activity.
Where can volcanic arcs be found?
Volcanic arcs are found in various locations worldwide, including the Andes, the Cascades, Japan, Central America, and the Aleutian Islands.
What types of volcanoes are commonly found in volcanic arcs?
Stratovolcanoes, also known as composite volcanoes, are commonly found in volcanic arcs due to their explosive nature. However, other volcano types like shield volcanoes or calderas can also be present.
Are volcanic arcs dangerous?
Volcanic arcs can pose hazards such as volcanic eruptions, ashfall, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and earthquakes. However, with proper monitoring and preparedness, the risks can be minimised.
Do volcanic arcs contribute to biodiversity?
Yes, volcanic arcs create fertile soils that support diverse plant communities. The abundant vegetation attracts various animal species, leading to high levels of biodiversity.
How long do volcanic arcs typically last?
Volcanic arcs can persist for millions of years as long as the subduction process continues and tectonic forces drive the movement of the plates involved.
Can volcanic arcs cause tsunamis?
While volcanic arcs themselves do not directly cause tsunamis, large volcanic eruptions, particularly those occurring in or near bodies of water, can trigger tsunamis through associated events like underwater landslides or the collapse of volcanic edifices.
Are volcanic arcs related to earthquakes?
Yes, volcanic arcs are often associated with intense seismic activity. As tectonic plates interact and subduct, the resulting pressure and movement can lead to earthquakes.
How are volcanic arcs monitored for potential eruptions?
Volcanic arcs are monitored using various techniques, including seismometers to detect earthquake activity, gas monitoring to track changes in gas emissions, ground deformation measurements, and satellite-based remote sensing to monitor volcanic activity and changes in thermal patterns.
As we can see, volcanic arcs are incredible feats of nature that are found in various parts of the world. If you enjoyed learning about these types of volcanos, I am sure you will like these posts too: